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STUDIES ON RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SEASON AND INORGANIC ELEMENTS OF KALLAR KAHAR LAKE (CHAKWAL), PAKISTAN
Nadeem Raza, Shahida B. Niazi, M. Sajid
Department of Chemistry, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan.
Farhan Iqbal, Muhammad Ali
Institute of Pure and Applied Biology, Bahauddin Zakariya University,Multan.
The present study is designed to demonstrate the seasonal variations in inorganic elements of Kallar Kahar Lake, for a period of one year from December 2001 to November 2002. Water samples were collected on monthly basis. Ten metals sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, nickel, cobalt, copper, cadmium, lead and zinc were analyzed in lake water using atomic Absorption Spectrometry and relationship was developed with reference to season. The concentration ranges found in lake water for Na, K, Mg, Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn are 250.10 - 650.14, 20.27 - 33.88, 51.48 - 249.12, 0.20 - 5.46, 0.04 - 0.25, 0.01 - 0.16, 0.01 - 1.20, 0.01 - 0.05, 0.01 - 0.30 and 0.44 - 2.82 ppm respectively. The average values of all the metals were significantly different through out the season. The overall levels of inorganic elemental concentrations in water were not within the safe limits during the study period and use of this lake water for domestic and agricultural purposes could be a threat for life.
Keywords: Atomic absorption spectrometry, inorganic elements, Kalar Kahar Lake, water samples.